It was built in the 11th or at the beginning of the 12th century. A church was mentioned for the first time in 1057. There are no documents about the construction. Archaeological excavations revealed evidence of a predecessor building. The wall of the choir of this older church is part of the later eastern wall. It is possible that this was the chapel of the Königshof from 1030, but at the latest the present church was built before 1120. A first extension followed around 1180 and in 1220 another yoke was added to the northwest. A last extension took place in the 14th century.
St. Peter's lost its function as a parish church in 1913 when the new parish church of St. Mary Magdalene was built. After that, for a long time it was used only on special occasions, such as Corpus Christi or St. Anthony's procession. Nevertheless, the church was preserved and extensively restored between 1997 and 2004, during which it was partially archaeologically investigated. Since the restoration, monthly services have been held there again during the summer months.